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Research
  Research Station Information
   
  Name of Research Station & Year Of Establishment
  Regional Fruit Research Station, Vengurla Year of Establishment: 1957
   
  Postal Address
  Associate Director of Research
Regional Fruit Research Station,
At & Post Vengurle, Dist. Sindhudurg, Maharashtra 416516
   
  Telephone & Fax Nos.
  Office Nos. : 02366-262693/262234 (O)
Fax- 02366-262234 (O)
Mango-02366-280093 (O)
Cashew-02366-263275 (O)
   
  Email Address
  adrrfrsvengurle@yahoo.in
   
  Major Activities
  Research and extension on Mango, Cashew and other major fruit crops
   
  Area Details ( In Hectares )
 

1. Total Area Held
2. Area Under Cultivation
3. Net Area Available

:  63.00 ha
:  59.50 ha
:  59.50 ha

   
 Special Achievements Notable Contributions of the Research Stations
 
  A) MANGO :
   
  1. Collected germplasm of 279 types.

2. Regular bearing variety “Ratna” have been released in the year 1983.

3. Technique of stone grafting, soft wood grafting has been standardized.

4. Regular bearing variety “Sindhu” with very small size stone have been released in 1992.

5. Variety for pickle viz; “Konkan Ruchi” have been released in 1999.

6. Planting Alphonso “Kesar” and “Goa Mankur” are profitable and there is a three fold increase in yield of “Kesar” in comparison with “Alphonso”.

7. Application of Paclobutrazol for inducing regular and early bearing in Alphonso is standardised and advocated.

8. Standardised the stage of harvesting of Alphonso mango to minimize occurrence of spongy tissue.

9. Given technique of pruning old unproductive mango orchards.

10. For controlling mango hopper it is recommended to spray 0.01% Permethrin 0.0075% Cypermethrin, 0.002% Decamethrin, 0.01% Fenvelrate or 0.1% Carbaryl.

11. For reducing occurrence of spongy tissue in mango it is advised :

      a) To harvest 85% mature fruits.

      b) To protect the harvested fruits from sunlight.

      c) Transport of fruits be made preferably during night hours.

      d) Dip the fruits in 500 PPM solution of ethrel.

12. Standardised poly houses for large scale multiplication of nursery plants.

13. For controlling top shoot borer of mango recommended to spray 0.01% Permethrin or 0.05% Monocrotophos at the time of new flushes.

14. Recommended spraying of 0.03% Dimethoate 15 days prior to harvest of the fruits for control of fruit fly.

15. For controlling powdery mildew of mango it is recommended to spray 0.02% Sulphur 0.1% Bavistin or 0.1% Tridemephon or SAN 615 F 0.05% after fruit set and 15 days there after.

16. For controlling Anthracnose of mango it is recommended to spray 0.1% Bavistin and 1% Bordeaux mixture.

17. For controlling Loranthus on mango 1% Glyphosate spraying is recommended.

18. Cause of early fruit maturity at Deogad was assessed by calculation of heat units : The total heat units required for Alphonso (750 to 800 DD), Kesar (844 to 899 DD) and Ratna (932 to 977 DD) were equal at both Vengurle and Deogad. However, days required for maturation of fruits were less (20 to 25 days) at Deogad than Vengurle due to production of extra daily heat units (1.55 to l.96 DD) at Deogad than Vengurle.

19. Identified the pollinizer varieties for Alphonso mango : Identified Kesar, Ratna and Goamankur as pollinizer varieties for Alphonso mango to increase pollination and fruit set in Alphonso mango. Therefore recommendation has been passed (2001) for plantation of 10 to 15% plants of Ratna, Kesar or Goamankur in Alphonso garden.

20. Control of Recurring flowering in Alphonso mango with GA3 spray was standardized: The recurring flowering causes fruit drop from old shoot of various size due to translocation of food at new flowering panicle. For control of recurring flowering in Alphonso mango GA3 50 ppm should be applied at full bloom to mustard fruit set. The recommendation has been given to extension agencies (2001).

21. Centre opening for increasing yield of overcrowded Alphonso mango: To increase yield of overcrowded mango and to minimise the incidence of pests and diseases, it is recommended to open the centre of tree canopy and thining of branches during rest period alongwith application of recommended dose of pp333 in subsequent year.

22. Pruning for bearing trees : For uniform vegetative shoot, flowering, fruiting and to reduce incidence of mango hopper light pruning (50 cm terminal shoots) during rest period is recommended after every 3 years. (Approved in October, 2002 Hort, Sub-committee).

23. Nutrient and growth regulators on fruit set,retention and yield of Alphonso mango : Foliar spray of Urea 2% + NAA 20 ppm + Micronutrient 50 ppm or Urea 2 % + Triacontanol 5 ppm + Micronutrient 50 ppm during pea nut size fruit and 10 days after (2nd spray) is recommended to increase fruit retention in Alphonso mango. (Approved in October, 2002 Hort, Sub-committee).

24. Alphonso 900 was observed best clone therefore Alphonso was released for registration purpose in 2002.
 
  PLANT PROTECTION
  TOP
  MANGO :
   
  1. Off season control of mango hopper. Spraying of synthetic pyrethroids during off season for the control mango hopper was recommended (1991-92 – 1993-94)

2. Synthetic pyrethroids were more effective in small dose as compared to organophosphate insecticides (1995-96 – 1996-97)

3. Survey of pest incidence on mango was conducted from 1994-95 and more than pest were recorded.

4. Insecticidal trial for the control of mango thrips. Spraying of 0.04% monocrotophos 36 WSC or 0.05% dimethoate 30EC was recommended.

5. Insecticidal trial for the control of mango mealy bug. Banding of alkathene (400 guage) 30 cm wide strip around tree trunk after mud plastering one metre above the ground level was found more effective. Spraying of 0.05 % methyl Parathion 50 EC was also found effective.

6. IPM for mango shoot borer. Removal and destruction of infected shoots along with the larvae. Spraying of 0.05% quinalphos 25EC or 0.01% permethrin or 0.04% monocrotophos 36 WSC or 0.1% carbaryl 50 WP after emergence of new flush two times at fortnight interval.

7. Screening of mango varieties against fruit fly and stone weevil. Experiment was stated from 1992-93. It was observed that no incidence of stone weevil observed in “Shindhu” variety. Negligible incidence of stone weevil and fruit fly observed in Alphonso, Ratna and Kesar. 8. Seasonal incidence of mango fruit fly using “Rakshak” fruit fly trap. It was observed that the incidence of fruit fly increased from April-May and reached maximum in June-July. Population of fruit flies was more in rainy season.

9. For control of mango hopper, “Mango blossom protection schedule” was prepared and recommended.

10. Control of mango fruit flies. Spraying with 0.03% dimethoate 30 EC 15 days before harvest of mango fruit was recommended.

11. Control of mango leaf miner. Spraying of 0.01% permethrin 10 EC or 0.04% monocrotophos 36 WSC or 0.1% carbaryl 50 WP on emergence of vegetative flush.

12. Integrated pest management of mango hopper and blossom midge. For hopper management IPM with pesticide and control with pesticidal sprays alone were found equally effective. As far as midge fly is concerned, the results are not much indicative.
   
  i. SPICES :
   
  1. Released “Konkan Sugandha” veriety of Nutmeg.

2. Standerdised soft wood grafting technique for large scale multiplication of various spices such as Kokum, Nutmeg, Cinnamon, Pepper etc.
   
  ii. OTHER MAJOR FRUITS:
   
  1. Released “Konkan Amruta” varieties of Kokum for Konkan region.

2. Released “Konkan Hatis” varieties of Kokum for Konkan region.

3. Tested various varieties of “Aonla”. i.e. NA –7, NA – 10 Krishna and Kanchan for cultivation in the Konkan region of Maharashtra.
 
  CASHEW :
TOP
  Crop Improvement
  1. This station released first named cashew variety in India as Vengurla - 1 by selection from existing seedling variability in the year 1974.

2. In order to develop high yielding and bold nut varieties of cashew, the hybridization programme was initiated in the year 1974. As a result, this station released six hybrid varieties so far.

3. Till today, the station released eight cashew varieties with different characters. The details of these varieties are given in Table 1.

4. Since 1999, in all 3000 F1 cashew hybrids have been developed and tested at Cashew farm for evaluation.

5. The ICAR Network programme on hybridization of cashew was initiated during 2000 to 2002. As a result, more than 2000 hybrid seedlings have been developed and planted at this station and other Station of the university for further study.
   
  Plant propagation
  1. Standardized the softwood grafting technique of cashew for mass multiplication of high yielding cashew varieties in the year 1987.

2. The veneer grafting technique on six months old rootstock has been recommended.

3. The flush grafting technique is developed for off season propagation purpose. Due to this technique the propagation can be successfully followed in winter season especially during December - January.

4. Rejuvenation of old cashew orchard

In Konkan region, most of the cashew plantation (up to1990) is seedling originated and due to poor genetic stock the production and productivity was very less. In order to convert these old cashew plantation in to high yielding recommended varieties coppice grafting technique has been standardized.
   
  III) Crop management
  1. Recommendation of fertilizer dose For proper growth and to improve the yield 40kg FYM, 1000 gm N, 250 gm P2O5 and 250 gm K2O for the 4-year-old plants is recommended. In the first year 1/4 dose, 2nd year 1/2 dose, 3rd year 3/4 doses and 4th year full dose recommended.

2. Judicious uses of irrigation Cashew crop responds very well to irrigation particularly during fruit set to fruit development period. Irrigation with 200 lit water /tree/ turn from Jan to March at fortnightly intervals doubled the yield.

3. For increasing the yield, spraying of 2 % urea is recommended along with insecticide solution at the time of emergence of vegetative flush (before flowering), flowering and fruit set . To increase the fruit set in cashew nut the spray of low cost dry fish extract @ 500g/10 lit of water is recommended.

4. To increase the fruit set in cashew nut by increasing the activity of pollinators spray of low cost dry fish extract @ 500g/10lit of water is recommended.

5. For increasing the yield of cashewnut, two sprays of 10 ppm Ethrel are recommended first at flushing and second at flowering stage.
   
  IV) Plant protection
  1. Three sprays of insecticides are recommended for control of tea mosquito bug.
     The plant protection schedule is as follow.
      i. First spray at flushing -- Monochrotophos (0.05%)
      ii. Second spray at flowering -- Endosulphan (0.05%)
      iii. Third spray at fruit set -- Carbaryl (0.10%)
For increasing the fruit set, retention and yield, 2% urea as foliar spray along with the three-insectisidal spray is recommended.

2. For the control of cashew and root borer sanitation and regular supervision of the orchard, maintaining cleanliness at the collar region of the tree is essential. Swabbing tree trunk up to 1m height with carbaryl (0.2%) or painting of the tree trunk up to 1m ht. with coltar + Kerosene (1:4) as preventive measures. Removal of grubs from infested trees. Swabbing of affected plant part and tree trunk up to height of 1mt. from ground level with 0.2% Carbaryl (50%wp) is recommended.

3. For effective control of Tea Mosquito bug and inflorescence thrips on cashew, 0.003 percent lambda- cyhalothrin is recommended as an alternative insecticide for the first (flushing stage) and third spray of the existing spray schedule recommended for cashew nut.

4. The swabbing and drenching of Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 10 ml/lit (5 lit/tree suspension) is recommended as curative treatment for the management of cashew stem and Root Borer (CSRB) after fallowing phytosanitory measures i.e. removal of CSRB grubs with the help of 15 mm chisels from the infested tree at an early stage of infestation.

5. Development of easiest,cheap and effective method for control of Cashew stem and root borer . As a curative treatment for the cashew trees infested by cashew stem and root borer, application of 10 ml. chlorpyriphos + 50 ml Kerosene or 10 ml DDVP + 50 ml Kerosene through entry hole (after removing frass ) with the help of plastic pipe and plugging the hole by moist soil is recommended.

6. Development of Forecasting model for influence of thrips on cashew in konkan region of Maharashtra.

Y4= 0.015271X1 – 0.093X2 + 0.030321X3 +0.030019 X4 – 0.16478 X5 – 0.21634 X6 – 0.09373X7 + 10.31713
R square = 0.891

7. Development of Forecasting model for Tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis antonii) on Cashew in konkan region of Maharashtra.

Y4 = 0.090095X1 – 0.00359X2 + 0.70137X3 – 0.84672 X4 – 2.68716 X5 – 2.87401X6 – 0.41121X7 + 173.2185
R square = 0.830
 
  TOP
  Details of various schemes implemented at Research Station ( Including Ad Hoc Schemes )
   
Sr
No
Name of the Scheme Sponsoring Agency Status of Scheme(Per./Ad Hoc) Commence -ment Year Crops covered under the scheme Period of the Scheme Present Status of Scheme
1 Fore warming tea mosquito bug in cashew ICAR,
NEW DELHI
Completed in year 2006 September
2004
Cashew 2004-
2006
Completed
   
  DETAILS OF RELEASED VARIETIES
  Mango :
Sr. No.  Crop variety Year of
release
Average yield
(Kg/tree)
Characteristics
1 Ratna 1981 86.6 Regular & early bearing free from spongy tissue. It is a cross between Neelam X Alphonso.
2 Sindhu 1992 59.0 A parthenocarpic hybrid which is a cross between Alphonso X Ratna.
3 Konkanruchi 1999 77.5 It is regular bearing variety which is cross between Neelam X Alphonso. It was evolved for pickle purpose.
4 Alphonso 2002 62.5 A commercial cultivar of Konkan region which is having good sugar-acid blend and excellent taste, with good keeping quality.
5 Suvarna 2009 70.6 First hybrid having Alphonso as a female parent. It’s a regular, cluster bearing, spongy tissue free and low fibre with more pulp percentage (78%). High yield potential 72.60 kg. per tree with high percentage of perfect flowers(35.52%).
 
   
    Cashew :
 
Sr. No.  Crop variety Year of
release
Average yield
(Kg/tree)
Characteristics
1 Vengurla -1
(Selection)
1974 15.74 Kg/tree Early variety with medium size nut. Average weight of nut 6.15 g. Average Shelling Percentage 30% Cashew apple colour yellow.
2 Vengurla -2
Selection
(WBDC-IV)
1979 23.10 Kg/tree Small size nut, synchronized flowering. Average weight of nut 4.35 g. Average Shelling Percentage 32% Cashew apple colour red.
3 Vengurla -3
V-1×Vetore-56
1982 16.66 Kg/tree Bold size nut. Average weight of nut 9.0 g. Average Shelling Percentage 27% Cashew apple colour yellow.
4 Vengurla -4
Midnapur
Red×Vetore-56
1982 19.08 Kg/tree All purpose variety. Average weight of nut 7.6 g. Average Shelling Percentage 31% Cashew apple colour red.
5 Vengurla -5
Ansur
Early×Maisur
Kotekar
1984 25.6 Kg/tree Compact canopy and spread. Average weight of nut 4.5 g. Average Shelling Percentage 30% Cashew apple colour yellow.
6 Vengurla -6
Vetore-
56×Vengurla-1
1992 17.0 Kg/tree Bold nut with less spreading habit. Average weight of nut 7.90 g. Average Shelling Percentage 28% Cashew apple colour yellow.
7 Vengurla -7
V-3×VRI-1
1996 14.94 Kg/tree Bold size nut. Average weight of nut 10.0 g. Average Shelling Percentage 30.50% Cashew apple colour yellow.
8 Vengurla -8
V-3×VRI-1
2002 15.75 Kg/tree Bold nut and big apple. Average weight of nut 11.50 g. Average Shelling Percentage 28% Cashew apple colour reddish.
 
  Jackfruit :
  TOP
 
Sr. No.  Crop variety Year of
release
Average yield
(Kg/tree)
Characteristics
1 Konkan Prolific 2004 450-550 Excellent taste, medium size fruit and also keeping quality is good in rainy season
   
  Karonda :
   
 
Sr. No.  Crop variety Year of
release
Average yield
(Kg/tree)
Characteristics
1 Konkan Bold 2004 3-4 Early bearing, maximum yield and attractive black colour fruits.
   
  Kokum :
   
 
Sr. No.  Crop variety Year of
release
Average yield
(Kg/tree)
Characteristics
1 Kokum Hatis 2006 250 Average weight of fruit is 34 gm.
2 Konkan Amruta 1997 135 Average weight of fruit is 91 gm.
   
  Jamun :
   
 
Sr. No.  Crop variety Year of
release
Average yield
(Kg/tree)
Characteristics
1 Konkan Bahadoli 2004 125-150 Bold size, good keeping quality and more juice percentage.
   
  Nutmeg :
   
 
Sr. No.  Crop variety Year of
release
Average yield
(Kg/tree)
Characteristics
1 Konkan Sugandha 1998 500 Regular bearing variety.
   
 
  Research Schemes :
   
 
Sr. No. Name of the
Project
Sponsoring
Agency
Name of Principal Investigator Place of
Implementation
Year of
Commencement
1 National Agricultural Research Project ICAR Dr. S.A.Chavan R.F.R.S.
Vengurle.
1984
2 All India Coordinated Research Project on Subtropical Fruits. ICAR Dr. B.R. Salvi R.F.R.S.
Vengurle.
1970
3 All India Coordinated Research Project on Cashew. ICAR Prof. M.S.Gawankar R.F.R.S.
Vengurle.
1970
4 Integrated Village Linkage Programme ICAR Dr. S.A.Chavan R.F.R.S.
Vengurle.
1996
 
 
  Research- Crop :
TOP
 
Name of the Crop : Mango
Botanical name : Mangifera Indica.
Cultivation : Mango is highly heterozygous and cross-pollinated crop. There are two types of Mango varieties. Most of the varieties are polyembryonic and thus give true to type seedlings. In north, there are monoembryonic and need to be propagated vegetatively. It is propagated on Mango root stock. For raising rootstocks, the seeds of mango are sown within 4-5 weeks after extraction otherwise they lose their viability. For sowing the seeds, raised beds are prepared with a mixture of farmyard manure, red soil and sand. In some places, seeds are sown directly in polythene bag. After germination, the leaves turn green in 2-4 weeks. These seedlings are transplanted to polythene covers containing red soil, sand and farmyard manure. Addition of nitrogenous fertilizer to polythene covers after the establishment of plants help in quick growth of seedlings. The seedlings thus raised should be used for grafting at different ages. Several methods of grafting are practiced. Epicotyl/stone grafting is widely practiced in the Konkan region of Maharashtra. The germinated seedlings of 8-15 days old are used for grafting.
Climatic Conditions : It is a tropical fruit, but it can be grown up to 1,100m. above mean sea level. There should not be high humidity, rain or frost during flowering. The temperature between 24 and 27o C with rainfall between 25 to 250 cm is ideal for its cultivation. Higher temperature during fruit development and maturity gives better-quality fruits.
Planting : Mango plantations raised through vegetatively propagated clonal progenies. During the commencement of Mansoon i.e., June-July planting of Mango grafts is done in a pit of one cubic meter size. After planting, staking should be done with bamboo sticks. After staking, at the base of the plant heavy mulch is applied for conservation of moisture.
Spacing : 10 m. X 10 m.
Fertilizer and manure
application
: Application of Fertilizer is done in the month of June-July. According to age, for one year age old plant 10 kg. cow dung manure, 300 g. Urea, 300 g. Single Super Phosphate and 200 g. Sulphate of Potash. The fertilizer dose every year is doubled according to age from 10 year onwards 3.0 kg. Urea, 3 kg. SSP and 3 kg. MOP is given within the canopy of plant in a fertilizer ring which is 15 cm. deep and width 45-60 cm.
Paclobutrazol (pp333)
application
: For irregular bearing varieties e.g. Alphonso, Kesar, Langra application of Growth retardant i.e. Paclobutrazol (pp333) is recommended to convert "off year" into "on year" Application of pp333 is done during 15th July to 31st August.
    Formula for application of (pp333) for mango tree :

= (N-S)m + (E-W)m           x 3ml. Paclobutrazol (0.75g) 23% a.i
2

After calculation of dose it is mixed in 3-6 liters of water and applied equally behind the fertilizer ring by making 20-30 holes of 10cm.
Soil type : It can be grown from alluvial to lateritic soils except in black cotton soil having poor drainage. It grows well in soils with slightly acidic pH. It does not perform well in soils having pH. beyond 7.5. Soils having good drainage are ideal for mango.
Harvesting : Mangoes should be harvested with pedicel. Injury to the fruits during harvesting brings down their quality and also makes them prone to fungal attack. The harvesting is done with nutan mango harvester at 14 anna stage (side shoulder are up right and deep towards the pedicel) with specific gravity 1.01. After harvesting mangoes are graded according to size and weight, for domestic and international market.
   
 
Name of the Crop : Cashewnut
Botanical name : Anacardium occidental
Cultivation : Cashew is highly cross-pollinated crop. Cashew plantations raised through seeds of high yielding tree behave differently with respect to yield, size, apple, colour etc. vegetatively propagated clonal progenies true to type of the another plants] give relatively more uniform yield and of the another plants, give relatively more uniform yield and come to fruiting earlier them seedling progenies. Among the various methods of vegetative propagation tried “Softwood grafting” technique was found to be the best method for commercial multiplication of cashew varieties.
Climatic Conditions : The distribution of cashew is restricted altitudes below 700 m where the temperature does not fall below 200C for prolonged periods, although it may be found growing at elevations up to 1200m. However it is best suited for elevation such as coastal regions. Cashew required high temperature. It should not tolerate prolonged period of extreme cold and frest. The optimum temperature for growth of cashew is 170C to 360C. High temperature range 390C to 420C during marble stage of fruit development causes fruit drop clondy weather during flowering enhance scorching of flowering due to tea mosquito bug infestation. Cashew is grown in areas with annual rainfall ranging from 600-4500 mm. Fruit set in cashew should be good if rains are not abundant during flowering. Dry spell during flowering ensure ensures better harvest. One or two rains during fruit development is congenial for getting well developed nuts and thereby ensuring better harvest.
Planting : Cashew plantations raised through vegetatively propagated clonal progenies. In the month of June-July while planting cashew grafts, planted pit should be of at least one cubic meter size. After planting, staking should be done by bamboo sticks. After staking, at the base of the plant heavy mulch is heavy mulch is applied to conserve the moisture.
Spacing : A spacing of 7m x 7m or 8m x 8m is recommended for cashew (200 or 156 plants/ha) in sloppy lands.
Fertilizer and manure application : For proper growth and to improve the yield is 40 kg FYM, 1000kg N, 250 gmP2O5 and 250 gm K2O t, 4th year. In the 1st year ¼ dose, 2nd year ½ dose, 3rd dose and 4th doses and 4th year full dose recommended.
Soil type : Cashew is commonly grown on sloppy lands in the west coast region. Soil erosion and leaching of plant nutrient are generally expected under such conditions to overcome this problem preparing terrace around the plant trunk.
Harvesting : The work done on maturity indices and post harvest technology of cashew apple is briefly accounted in this chapter. Mautrity indices:
It was observed that the cashew apple and nut took on an average 51 and 39 days, respectively to reach maturity from fruit set. The physical characters namely, weight, length, volume and diameter could be considered the physical indices of maturity of cashew fruit (nut with apple), while specific gravity could only be considered as the physical index of maturity of nut and apple. The colour change can also be considered as a sign to detect maturity in cashew apple and nut.
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Name of the Crop : Jackfruit
Botanical name : Artocarpus heterophyllus
Climatic Conditions : It is preferred in homesteads, as a shade tree or as a mixed crop. It grows well in a warm, humid climatic up to an elevation of 1,500m. In south India, it performs satisfactorily in arid and warmer plains. However, it cannot tolerate cold and frost.
Planting : The plants of Jackfruit should be planted in a pit of one cubic metre in the month of June-August is ideal time for planting.
Spacing : 8m x 8m.
Fertilizer and manure application : Application of fertilizers is done according to age of tree. From 5th year onwards, of 1kg urea, 1.5kg SSP, and 500g Murate of potash per plant per year is recommended.
Soil type : Jackfruit can be grown on a wide variety of soils but it grows well in a rich, deep, alluvial and well-drained soil. It can also be grown on open textured or lateritic soil provided sufficient nutrients are available.
Harvesting : Seedling trees start bearing from seventh to eighth year onward while the grafted ones from third year, when a few fruits may develop. Singapore variety starts yielding from third year of plating. The tree attains its peak bearing stage in about 15-16 years of planting. At this stage, normally a tree bears up to 250 fruits annually with annual fluctuations in yield. The weight of fruits also varies depending on the type. On an average about 40-50 tonnes of fruits/ha could be obtained.
   
 
Name of the Crop : Jamun
Botanical name : Syzygium cuminii
Climatic Conditions : Since jamun is a hardy fruit crop, it can be grown under adverse soil and climatic conditions. It thrives well under both tropical and subtropical climate. It requires dry weather at the time of flowering and fruit setting. Early rains are beneficial for better growth, development and ripening of fruit. Young plants are susceptible to frost.
Planting : Pits of 90cm x 90cm x90cm size are dug 10m apart for seedling trees and 8m apart for budded plants in a properly cleaned field. Pit digging should be completed before the onset of the monsoon or spring season. They should be filled with a mixture of top soil and well-rotten farmyard manure or compost in a 3:1 ratio. Monsoon season (July- September) is ideal time of planting. But it can also be planted with a good survival rate in spring (February- March) if irrigation facilities are available. About 100-150 plants are required for planting a hectare land.
Spacing : 10m x 10m.
Fertilizer and manure application : In pre-bearing period, 20-25 kg well-rotten for cowdung manure or compost/plant/year should be applied. For bearing trees, this dose is increased up to 50- 60kg/plant/year. The ideal time for giving the organic manures is month before flowering. Grows-up trees should be applied (5th year) 1 kg urea, 1.5kg SSP and 500g MOP per plant per year.
Soil type : The jamun trees can be grows on a wide range of soilscalcareous, saline soils and marshy areas. Deep loam and well-drained soils are ideal. It does not prefer very heavy and light sandy soils.
Harvesting :           Seedling trees start bearing at the age 9-10 years, whereas budded ones take 5-6 years. Flowering starts during March and continues up to April in north Indian conditions. Fruits ripen during June- July or with the onset or rains. It takes about 3-5 months to ripen after full bloom. Fruits change their colour from green to deep red or bluish black. This is a non-climacteric fruit hence it does not ripen after harvesting. Fully ripe fruits are harvested daily by hand-picking or by shaking the branches and collecting the fruits on a polythene sheet. Jamun trees need a number of pickings, since all fruits do not ripen at a time. The average yield of fully-grown budded and seedling trees is 50-70 kg and 80-100 kg/plant/year.
          Jamun fruits are highly perishable. They can be stored only up to 2 days at ambient temperature. Perforated polythene bags can be stored for 3 weeks at 8-100 C and 85-90% humidity. There is no standard practice for grading of fruits. Blemished or bruised fruits must be sorted out before packing. Fruits are normally packed in bamboo baskets and transported to local markets. In the market, fruits are sold on green leaves or on pieces of newspaper. The fruits prepacked in leaf cup covered with perforated polythene bags have little or no damage, during handling. Handling of fruits during transit from market to home is also easier in this container.
          Jamun fruits can be processed into excellent quality fermented beverages such as vinegar and cider, and non-fermented ready-to-serve beverages and squashes- A good quality jelly can also be prepared from its fruits. The seeds can be processed into powder which is very useful to cure diabetes.
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Name of the Crop : Karonda
Botanical name : Carissa carandas
Climatic Conditions : Since Karonda is very hardy and drought tolerant, it thrives well throughout the tropical and subtropical climates. Heavy rainfall and waterlogged conditions are not desirable.
Planting : Beginning of monsoon is ideal time of planting. Pits of 45cm x 45cm x 45cm and 60cm x 60cm x 60cm size are dug and filled with organic manure and soil, in a 1:2 ratio. The planting distance for fence/hedge should be 1-1.5m, requiring 300-400 plants for planting the boundary of one hectare land
Spacing : 3-4m for regular planting.
Fertilizer and manure application : For good yield and better growth of grafts application of fertilizer in the month of August to September about 25kg cowdung manure, 100g urea, 50gm MOP is given. For early flowering and fruiting drenching of 10-15litres cowdung urine is done in the fertilizer ring during January- February.
Soil type : It can be grown on a wide range of soils including saline and sodic soils.
Harvesting :           Plants raised with seeds start bearing in third year of its planting. The plants flower during March. The fruits ripen from July to September in north India. In arid conditions, flowering starts late and fruits ripen in postmonsoon period. Karonda requires 2-3 pickings. On an average a plant provides 3.5-5kg fruits.
          Karonda fruits mature 100-110 days after fruit set. At this stage fruits develop their natural colour. Fruits ripen after this stage, taking about 120 days (after fruit set) when they become soft and attain dark purple/maroon/red colour. There is no standard practice for grading and packing of fruits. Fruits after harvesting are kept in shade. Undesirable or blemished fruits are sorted out. Good fruits packed in baskets are marketed. Storage life of fruits depends upon the stage of harvest. Fruits harvested at maturity, can be stored for a week at room temperature, whereas fruits harvested at ripe stage are highly perishable and can be stored only for 2-3 days. Fruits can be preserved/stored for 6 months in SO2 solution (2,000ppm). Raw or mature fruits are most suitable for making an excellent quality pickle, jelly and candy. Ripe fruits can be processed into ready-toserve squash and syrup. They can also be dried.
   
 
Name of the Crop : Kokum
Botanical name : Garcinia indica Choisy
Climatic Conditions : Kokum planted under both tropical and subtropical climatic condition.
Planting : Soft wood grafting use in kokum. Kokum can be grown as a intercrop with arecanuts, coconut, mango, sapota and other horticulture crops. Planting in the month of May at 6m x 6m distance and pits size 60cm x 60cm. x 60cm. At the time of planting 1kg F.Y.M., 1kg S.S.P., mix with pit soil and this soil fill in pit and then the graft planted.
Spacing : 6m x 6m
Fertilizer and manure application : F.Y.M. 2kg 100gm Urea, 150gm. SSP, 50gm. MOP at 1st year.

F.Y.M. 20kg, 1kg Urea, 1.5kg SSP, 500gm MOP at 10th year.
Soil type : Well drain soil.
Harvesting : The kokum graft start bearing at the age of 4th year. Yield is 140kg per tree.
   
 
 OTHER RESEARCH ACTIVITIES :-
   
  Nursery management in Mango
  Grafting Techniques :-
            During last three decades, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli has carried out extensive research programme on propagation of mango with the main objective of developing rapid, cheap and easy methods for mass multiplication of grafts. This has revolutionized the nursery programme in the country. Among the several propagation methods developed by the University, following are commonly adopted by the nurserymen.
          The university has successfully standardized commercialized this technique for the Konkan region. It is an easy and best method of multiplication of mango. Near about 60% success is achieved by adopting this technique. As the stone remains attached to the rootstock while grafting, The technique is called as stone grafting. For commercial propagation of mango, this technique is very widely used in Konkan region of Maharashtra.
   
  Advantages of epicotyl grafting :-
 
  • Simple technique.
  • Rapid method. Large number of grafts can be prepared within short period with good survival percentage.
  • The cost of production is less as compared to other grafting techniques.
  • Graft joints are smooth, strong and perfect with straight growth.
  • Excellent establishment of grafts in the field.
  • No risk of sprouting of rootstock after establishment and planting in the main field.
  • Grafting operation is done during June-July in the shed. Hence, the manpower could be utilized effectively even when it is raining heavily outside. A skilled mali can prepare more than 500 grafts per day.
   
  Season of grafting :-
   
            Stone grafting can be done from June to September. But the best season is first week of June to August, and if done later, the percent success decreases.
          There are certain criteria for selecting the scion sticks. The selected scion should be
 
  • From desirable variety.
  • 15 to 20 cm. in length and four months old.
  • Dark green in colour, smooth and round in shape.
  • Apical bud should be mature plumpy and non-sprouted.
  • Free from insect-pest and disease infestation.
   
  Rootstocks :-
   
            Commercially, mango is grafted on non-descript seedling rootstocks in India. The studies conducted at the university indicated that mango can be grafted on any type of rootrstock except Totapuri variety as it is affected severly by stone weevil infestation. Generally non descript local mango types with plump and flesh stones which are fresh are much preferable. Use of stones from canning factories are also suitable, provided they are fresh and not mixed with peel.
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  Raising of rootstock :-
   
            The seedlings to be used as rootstock are raised by sowing mango stones on the raised beds. The beds of size 3m X 1m X 15cm are prepared for sowing the stones. The healthy, heavier stones which sink in the water are selected. The selected stones are cleaned thoroughly with water like Emisan, Monosan or Ceresan @ 3 to 5 g/Kg. The stones are then sown horizontally or vertically on the raised bed and covered with thin layer of FYM and garden soil. Germination takes place within 3 to 4 weeks of sowing and the healthy newly sprouted coppery red coloured tender seedlings are selected for grafting.
   
  Selection of rootstock :-
   
  The selected rootstock should be
 
  • Healthy, vigorously growing and free from insect-pest and disease infestation.
  • Thick and strong epicotyls with coppery red colour.
  • About three weeks old.
   
  Grafting procedure :-
   
            Uproot the selected rootstock carefully without injuring the roots and the epicotyls. The upper portion of the epicotyls is removed by giving a horizontal cut at the height of 6 to 8 cm above stone. A vertical cut, exactly in middle of the epicotyls, is given 1.5 to 2.5 cm. from the stone. Remove the leaves from selected scion, retaining the petiole. The scion stick of 15 to 20 cm is prepared by giving wedge shape. Slanting cut of 5 cm length, on both sides at the basal end of the scion, is given to form a edge. The scion is inserted in prepared root stock and the union is tied tightly with plastic strip of 1.5 cm width care is taken to match the stock and scion at least one side while tying. The prepared graft is planted in plastic bag of size 6” X 8” filled with mixture of soil, FYM and sand in equal proportion and kept in polytunnels to protect them from heavy rains. After 2 to 2 ½. Months, successful grafts are taken out of poly tunnels or shed and put in trenches in pairs in the open field. Plastic tapetied at graft union is removed after 3 months of grafting. Two months old grafts are then shifted in open field trenches in two rows. Stone grafts are ready for planting in the main field after about one year.
   
  Softwood grafting :-
   
            The soft wood grafting technique is same as that of stone grafting. In this method of grafting is done when the rootstock produces secondary soft vegetative growth. It is done during September-October and February to April. It is done on the emerging soft coppery red shoot. The technique has proved successful in establishing in situ mango orchards in drier tracts. In the comparative studies of in situ softwood grafting of Alphonso mango with that of softwood grafting in polybag, no significant differences were observed in sprouting and survival of grafts.
   
  Aftercare of grafts
  Provision of shade :–
   
            Mango grafts have to be protected from heavy and intense sunlight by keeping them under a shade called polytunnel with covering of polythene sheet. It is of any size, and made by using bamboo or iron poles and polythene sheet of 400-gauge thickness. Size of polytunnel varies according to number of grafts to be kept in a particular area.
   
  Aftercare of grafts :–
   
            The mango grafts prepared either by stone grafting or softwood grafting technique, are taken care of for one year in the nursery and then used for planting in the field. New shoots arising from any portion of the rootstocks must be removed at every 15 days interval for better sprouting and growth of scion shoots. A successful stone or soft wood graft of mango generally sprouts within 3 to 4 weeks. The polythene strip used for tying the graft is taken off after about a month of removal of stone grafts from the shed. If the strip is not removed in due course of time, it penetrates in to the graft joint and the vigour of graft is reduced. The grafts kept in the nursery are watered regularly; avoiding water stagnation in polybags. Excessive irrigation during early stages increase the mortality of stone grafts kept in polysheds. Irrigation be done by drip or flooding in trenches. Necessary plant protection measures should invariably be taken up from time to time to avoid the damage by insect, pests and diseases.
   
  Nursery management in Cashew :-
   
            Cashew was previously considered as a wild plant. Per hectare cashew production in Maharashtra was very low primarily due to poor genetic potential of the local types and lack of scientific knowledge for production. This Research station has developed and released 8 high yielding cashew verities (Vengurla 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 & 8) and standardized easy, cheap and rapid methods of its vegetative propagation.
          Cashew is grafted only on seedling root stock. The seed nuts of one single variety having medium size and dense nuts (specific gravity more than 1.0 g) be collected for sowing. Such seeds will give better, uniform germination, and healthy and uniform seedlings. Dense seeds can be selected by the system of floating in water or saline solution (10%). The seedling (vigorous, 20-30 cm tall with 10-12 leaves) obtained from such seeds can be used for grafting after two months. The good seedlings can be obtained by growing seedlings in a potting mixture of 1:1:1 course sand, red soil and well decomposed compost filled in bags of 25 cm x 15 cm size and 300 gauges thicknesses. Presoaking of seeds in water or sodium chloride (2- 3%) solution results in quicker and higher percentage of germination.
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  Grafting technique :-
   
            Cleft grafting (Wedge grafting) when done on tender portion of the plant known as ‘softwood grafting’ is the best technique to follow for commercial multiplication of cashew. Procured scion sticks (leaf blades chipped off the scion sticks, a week in advance) be use for grafting over the above mentioned root stock seedlings. Always a healthy and matching scion sticks in thickness be used for grafting which is collected on the same day. The grafted plants are maintained under shade for 15-20 days. Grafting should be done as per the procedures of epicotyls in mango.
   
  Maintenance of grafts :-
   
 
  • In the nursery, the grafts should be arranged in batches after spreading black polythene sheet on the ground to prevent the grafts from striking their root into the ground. Otherwise, frequent shifting of grafts from, one place to another place is required which involves huge labour.
  • The grafts should be watered daily depending upon the weather conditions.
  • During heavy rainy season, if water stagnation is observed in the bags, then the excess water may be removed by pressing the sides of the bags.
  • During summer, the grafts should be provided with partial shade by erecting pandal and covering with agro shade nets (35-50% shading). As soon as the monsoon starts, the shade should be removed. Complete shading should be avoided as it results in lanky and weak growth of grafts. Laminated shade nets (35% shading) may also be used.
  • The grafts may be sprayed with systemic insecticides such as monocrotophos (1.5ml/litre) to control insect pests such as tea mosquito, leaf minor, leaf eating caterpillars etc.
  • The side shoots arising from root stock portion of the grafts should be removed frequently.
  • After 4-5 months of grafting, the polythene strip should be removed from the graft joint. Otherwise, there will be girdling at the graft joint. However, the polythene strip should be removed before selling the grafts.
  • After three-four months of grafting, the bottom leaves on the root stock portion of the graft should be removed.
   
  Grafts standards :-
   
 
  • Grafts should be of more than 5 months for transport for planting in the field.
  • Graft should be of more than 30 cm in height.
  • The graft joint should be at a height of 15-20 cm at collar region.
  • The new grafts should have minimum of 4-5 fully matured leaves.
  • The graft joint should be perfect without any girdling or constriction.
  • The polythene strip should be removed from graft joint before sale or planting.
  • Graft should be healthy and erect growing.
  • Graft should be free from side sprouts from root stock.
  • The bag containing potting mixture should be intact without damage.
   
  The Grafts/Seedling sold during 2003-2004 to 2008-2009 (6 year)
 
Sr. No. Fruit
Crop
Year
2003-04
Year
2004-05
Year
2005-06
Year
2006-07
Year
2007-08
Year
2008-09
Total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1) Mango 70703 50616 58494 46465 33750 49996 310024
2) Cashew 175778 85539 105491 90847 98865 944281 1500801
3) Coconut 6547 9408 2505 5779 12164 4192 40595
4) Suppota 5346 1922 8325 3408 2119 5720 26840
5) Nutmeg 264 1746 5838 11689 6681 - 26218
6) Cinnamom 3423 4319 1611 1651 3007 1538 15549
7) Kokam 7597 2629 10645 9470 6049 7817 44207
8) Jackfruit 2268 929 2007 3054 1705 2587 12550
9) Jamun 1529 7815 8605 7494 13620 9992 49055
10) Aonla 5595 17368 11202 7206 8186 10587 60144
11) Arecanut 1140 1696 763 2704 2574 4084 12961
12) Seedless Lemon - 711 3493 2903 5564 1691 14362
13) Karonda - - - 481 749 832 2062
14) Others 4114 6094 11938 20016 22454 12282 64,616
  Total 2,84,304 1,90,792 2,30,917 2,13,167 2,17,487 10,55,599 21,79,984
   
 
 Future Planning for Research Activities
   
  By considering the international opportunities and to agricultural growth rate, international market of fruit crops and human resource development in future, the following project will be undertaken by this station.
   
  1. Organic farming technique in Cashew and other fruit crops. 2. Fertigation technique in mango.

3. Intercropping in mango.

4. Evolving hybrids with special objective like high yield, compact canopy, cluster bearing habit, tolerant to pest and     disease, for international and domestic market demands of fruits in mango and kernels in cashew.

5. Micro propagation technique in cashew.

6. Improvement in mechanical processing of kernels

7. Utilization of cashew nuts and apples for processing on mass scale.

8. Expansion of area under Mango and Cashew crop in Konkan region and other suitable regions of Maharashtra.

9. High density planting technique.

10. Increasing pollination by attracting pollinators. 11. Minimizing the use of insecticides for preventive as well as for curative treatments to control the TMB and CSRB.

12. IPM strategy for TMB and CSRB and other major pest.

13. Control of nursery pest.

14. Use of Bio Pesticides or plant extract.

15. Relation of tea mosquito incidence with different fertilizer doses needs to be investigated

16. Effect of different Methods of fertilizer application in Management of CSRB incidence

17. Organic Management of Mango hopper.

18. Integrated management of Mango hopper.

19. Control of Mangostem borer.

20. Organic Management of Mango mealy bug.

21. Control of Mango midge.

22. Integrated management of mango thrips.

23. Hi-Tech nursery management to produce genuine, quality and more number of grafts.
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